Types of Threat

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Information

There are a number of different threats to data and information.  Some are physical threats and some are cyber threats.


Information
Malware

Malware is short for Malicious Software.


Type of Malware Why is it used? How it works How to mitigate
Computer Virus Attempts to make a computer system unreliable A virus is a computer program that  is able to infect a computer, replicate itself and infect other computers by attaching itself to other files Up to date anti-virus software
Do not download files from an untrusted source
Worm A standalone program that replicates its self to it can be spread to other computers Worms use computer networks to spread
Unlike a virus, they don not need to attach themselves to other files
Do not open or download files from an unknown source
Do not click on links in emails
Keep your anti-virus software up to date
Trojan Horse A standalone malicious program that is designed to give full control of a computer to another computer Trojan's are able to disguise themselves are something harmless like and image or text file
Trojans are able to make copies of themselves to infect other computers
They can be used to damage computer files or steal information
Do not open or download files from an unknown source
Do not click on links in emails
Keep your anti-virus software up to date
Bug A flaw in the code for a program Bugs are the result of human error whilst coding software
Most bugs are fixed by the software creator issuing a patch or fix
check for, download and install and patches that are released
Ransomware Holds a computer system captive and demands an ransom to unlock the computer Ransomware can restrict access to a computer system, data or a web site by locking down that part of the system
A ransom message is normally displayed on the screen
Make sure user accounts and password are secure
Rootkit Designed to remotely access and control a computer without being detected Rootkits can allow a cyber criminal to access files and data remotely
They can be difficult to detect
Make sure the latest software updates are installed
Spyware Designed to collect data from an infected computer system Spyware is normally hidden from the user and is difficult to detect
Some spyware can access webcams and microphones
Other spyware like key loggers record key presses and mouse clicks
Do not open or download files from an unknown source
Do not click on links in emails
Keep your anti-virus software up to date
Adware Generates revenue for the author Adware is also called advertising-supported software
It is a type of software that will allow advert popups or pop-unders to appear on your screen
Adware itself is harmless
Make sure popups are blocked on your browser
Bot Takes control of a computer A bot is a type of malware that allows cyber criminals to take control of an infected computer without the users knowledge
Bots can be used to remotely turn on and off computer systems 
Botnets are a version of a bot that can infect connected computers on a network
Install and 


Information
Social Engineering

Social Engineering means manipulating people so that they give you confidential information.  There are lots of examples of social engineering.

Type of Social Engineering Why it is Used How it works
Phishing Phishing tries to get users to input their bank, credit card details, username and passwords into a fake website Phishing uses fake websites and email that look genuine
Pretexting Pretexting is when a cybercriminal lies to get personal or sensitive data from you Pretexting might involve a scam where the criminal pretends to need information to identify who you are
Baiting Baiting is where cybercriminals use a range of techniques to get personal or sensitive data from you Baiting is similar to Phishing
Quid Pro Quo Quid Pro Quo is where cybercriminals try to disable firewall or antivirus protection on your computer Quid Pro Quo is similar to Baiting and Phishing
Tailgating & Piggybacking Tailgating is where a criminal tries to get access to a secure room The criminal will normally follow someone into a room
Shoulder Surfing Shoulder Surfing is where a criminal will try and get information from you whilst you are trying it into a computer A criminal may look over your shoulder whilst you type in your user name and password


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Last modified: Wednesday, 9 December 2020, 12:11 PM